High School Statutory Authority: Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Chemistry or concurrent enrollment in Chemistry. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10, 11, or In Aquatic Science, students study the interactions of biotic and abiotic components in aquatic environments, including impacts on aquatic systems. Investigations and field work in this course may emphasize fresh water or marine aspects of aquatic science depending primarily upon the natural resources available for study near the school. Students who successfully complete Aquatic Science will acquire knowledge about a variety of aquatic systems, conduct investigations and observations of aquatic environments, work collaboratively with peers, and develop critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the “use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.
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Page 1 These Pages Print Best In Landscape Mode For forty days the flood kept coming on the earth, and as the waters increased they lifted the ark high above the earth. The waters rose and increased greatly on the earth, and the ark floated on the surface of the water. They rose greatly on the earth, and all the high mountains under the entire heavens were covered.
The waters rose and covered the mountains to a depth of more than twenty feet. Every living thing that moved on the earth perished–birds, livestock, wild animals, all the creatures that swarm over the earth, and all mankind. Everything on dry land that had the breath of life in its nostrils died.
chapter historical perspectives displacing the earth from the center of the universe uniting the heavens and earth relating matter & energy and time & space extending time moving the continents understanding fire splitting the atom explaining the diversity of life discovering germs harnessing power.
But there are other reasons nuclear power is in trouble as well. Far more plants are in danger of closing than are being built 37 or more may close. This is a liquid transportation fuels crisis. The Achilles heel of civilization is our dependency on trucks of all kinds, which run on diesel fuel because diesel engines are far more powerful than steam, gasoline, electric or any other engine on earth Vaclav Smil.
Prime Movers of Globalization: According to a study for the Department of energy society would need to prepare for the peaking of world oil production 10 to 20 years ahead of time Hirsch But conventional oil peaked in and been on a plateau since then. Here we are 12 years later, totally unprepared, and the public is still buying gas guzzlers whenever oil prices drop, freeway speed limits are still over 55 mph.
Although some will have their licenses extended, 37 reactors that produce half of nuclear power are at risk of closing because of economics, breakdowns, unreliability, long outages, safety, and expensive post-Fukushima retrofits Cooper Nuclear power is too expensive, 37 costly reactors predicted to shut down and A third of Nuclear Reactors are going to die of old age in the next years.
Luminant seeks new reactor. What utility wants to spend billions of dollars and wait a decade before a penny of revenue and a watt of electricity is generated?
Genesis and Genetics
What you see is complexity at every stage. He received his Ph. They can be plant or animal bodies that have been partially or completely replaced by minerals. They can be impressions that just show the shape of a creature, or tracks left behind by a traveler, or other remnants that testify to the lives of long-gone organisms. Some rare fossils even have original organic soft tissue encased in rock, showing that their organisms couldn’t have been dead for millions of years, as evolution claims.
Radiometric Dating and the Geological Time Scale: Circular Reasoning or Reliable Tools? Andrew MacRae deals with claims that the geologic column is just circular reasoning.
Were Darwin’s Galapagos Finches Evolution? What does happen in a population as the genome reacts to the environment? Darwin looks at the finches on the Galapagos Islands and notices variations in beak size. He thought that the harder seed in the dry time was causing the beaks of the finches to grow stouter from the use of the part. But what was happening was that natural selection or a long term drought in the islands was causing the seed cases to harden.
The heavier beaked finch allele in the genome was favored and the lighter beaked finch allele was not. The heavier beaked finch became more dominant because it passed on the heavy beak alleles. The heavy beak was not the result of a mutation! It was already an allele in the genome and was just brought out as a result of the environment. When the rains came back the lighter beak became the more efficient beak and the number of heavy beaks reduced.
This is microevolution at its best.
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What about the fact that the “simple” organisms are buried in the lower levels and the more “complicated” ones are buried in the higher levels? Doesn’t this fact support the notion that simple organisms evolved into more and more complex organisms over time, with the more complex organisms buried and fossilized above the earlier and simpler life forms? Certainly this seems like a very logical assumption.
7. Dimension 3 DISCIPLINARY CORE IDEAS—EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCES. E arth and space sciences (ESS) investigate processes that operate on Earth and also address its place in the solar system and the galaxy. Thus ESS involve phenomena that range in scale from the unimaginably large to the invisibly small.
One of the very foundations of evolution and popular science today is the “geologic column. Although not found in all locations and although it varies in thickness as well as the numbers of layers present, this column can be found generally over the entire globe. Many of its layers can even be found on top of great mountains – such as Mt. Everest and the American Rockies. In some places, such as the mile deep Grand Canyon, the layers of the column have been revealed in dramatic display.
Certainly the existence of the column and its layered nature is quite clear, but what does it mean?
The extinction of the dinosaurs
This article will explain how carbon dating is supposed to work and then show you the serious flaws with this process. It is derived from a transcript of Dr. His videos and materials are not copyrighted. Carbon dating was not invented until When the schools started to teach that the earth is billions of years old, back in , the reasoning was not because of carbon dating.
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Before the scientific era, people often made up imaginative stories to explain what they saw in the world. The scientific method changed that by requiring rigorous experimentation to test hypotheses and determine what is real. With the Theory of Evolution, people are back to making up imaginative stories. The primary advantage of complete metamorphosis is eliminating competition between the young and old. Larval insects and adult insects occupy very different ecological niches. Whereas caterpillars are busy gorging themselves on leaves, completely disinterested in reproduction, butterflies are flitting from flower to flower in search of nectar and mates.
Because larvas and adults do not compete with one another for space or resources, more of each can coexist relative to species in which the young and old live in the same places and eat the same things. Ultimately, the impetus for many of life’s astounding transformations also explains insect metamorphosis: Nevertheless, “biologists have established a plausible narrative about the origin of insect metamorphosis, which they continue to revise as new information surfaces.
Radiometric Dating and the Geological Time Scale
Acknowledgements Introduction his document discusses the way radiometric dating and stratigraphic principles are used to establish the conventional geological time scale. It is not about the theory behind radiometric dating methods, it is about their application, and it therefore assumes the reader has some familiarity with the technique already refer to “Other Sources” for more information. As an example of how they are used, radiometric dates from geologically simple, fossiliferous Cretaceous rocks in western North America are compared to the geological time scale.
To get to that point, there is also a historical discussion and description of non-radiometric dating methods. A common form of criticism is to cite geologically complicated situations where the application of radiometric dating is very challenging. These are often characterised as the norm, rather than the exception.
One of the very foundations of evolution and popular science today is the “geologic column.” This column is made up of layers of sedimentary rock that supposedly formed over millions and even billions of .
Reproduction and development[ edit ] Compsobuthus werneri female with young white A few arthropods, such as barnacles , are hermaphroditic , that is, each can have the organs of both sexes. However, individuals of most species remain of one sex their entire lives. However, most arthropods rely on sexual reproduction , and parthenogenetic species often revert to sexual reproduction when conditions become less favorable. All known terrestrial arthropods use internal fertilization.
Opiliones harvestmen , millipedes , and some crustaceans use modified appendages such as gonopods or penises to transfer the sperm directly to the female. However, most male terrestrial arthropods produce spermatophores , waterproof packets of sperm, which the females take into their bodies. A few such species rely on females to find spermatophores that have already been deposited on the ground, but in most cases males only deposit spermatophores when complex courtship rituals look likely to be successful.
Do Varves, Tree-Rings, and Radiocarbon Measurements Prove an Old Earth?
For example, when you ask an evolutionist how they come up with the age of the sedimentary layers in the earth, they will always tell you they date them by the fossils found in those sedimentary layers. But how can that be? How can the rocks date the layers, if the layers date the rocks? The evolutionist agrees with Darwin and says all life on earth evolved from primordial soup, which then somehow formed into many different species like birds, animals, plants, fish etc; and those birds, animals, plants and fish evolved into many different types of species themselves.
For example, they believe a bird later formed different types of lizards, horses and dogs. They also believe that plants created everything from vines to trees to flowers, and fish evolved into dinosaurs, apes and humans.
Here in Israel, we’re also under fire, of a different type. The Arabs in Gaza are continuing to send their burning balloons over the fence while the media and government basically ignore the ‘mini-war’ being fought in Israel’s south.
A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter. Any heritable characteristic of an organism that improves its ability to survive and reproduce in its environment. Also used to describe the process of genetic change within a population, as influenced by natural selection.
A graph of the average fitness of a population in relation to the frequencies of genotypes in it. Peaks on the landscape correspond to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is high, valleys to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is low. Also called a fitness surface. A behavior has adaptive logic if it tends to increase the number of offspring that an individual contributes to the next and following generations.
If such a behavior is even partly genetically determined, it will tend to become widespread in the population.
Creation vs. Evolution
Can science prove the age of the earth? No scientific method can prove the age of the earth and the universe, and that includes the ones we have listed here. Further, it has to be assumed that the clock was never disturbed. There is no independent natural clock against which those assumptions can be tested. For example, the amount of cratering on the moon, based on currently observed cratering rates, would suggest that the moon is quite old.
Potassium-argon ‘dates’ of recent Mt. Ngauruhoe lava flows. As you can see from the ‘dates’ in the above table the lava flows that were less than 55 years old were given dates from , years to million plus or minus 20 thousand years.
I don’t know why it was put back into the rotation when the recent comments link didn’t work, anyway. Makes for difficult blogging. June 10, at 1: If you post on page 1 the new post links work, however, maybe move the discussion there ? June 10, at 2: I’ve been meaning to ask you that. You were one of the first people I talked to when I first came on. Me and mine are doing well; I hope the same is true for you and yours.